Low cost virtual reality headsets powered by smartphones are becoming ubiquitous. Their unique position on the user's face opens interesting opportunities for interactive sensing. We describe EyeSpyVR, a software-only eye sensing approach for smartphone-based VR, which uses a phone's front facing camera as a sensor and its display as a passive illuminator. Our proof-of-concept system, using a commodity smartphone, enables four sensing modalities: detecting when the VR headset is worn, detecting blinks, recognizing the wearer's identity, and coarse gaze tracking - features typically found in high-end or specialty VR headsets. We describe our implementation and results from a 70 participant user study.
Ahuja, K., Islam, R., Parashar, V., Dey, K., Harrison, C. and Goel, M. 2018. EyeSpyVR: Interactive Eye Sensing Using Off-the-Shelf, Smartphone-Based VR Headsets. In Proceedings of the ACM on Interactive, Mobile, Wearable and Ubiquitous Technologies. UBICOMP ’18. 2, 2, Article 57 (July 2018). ACM, New York, NY. 10 pages.